Creston Washington

Road Construction
As you do not know the path of the wind, or how the body is formed in a mother’s womb, so you cannot understand the work of God, the Maker of all things.

Welcome
Copenhaver Construction Inc. is a family owned and operated company. Established in 1992 we have continued to adapt and expand to meet the needs of our customers. From rock crushing to ready mix concrete, site prep to road construction, if you need some earth moved, hauled away or filled in, we are the one stop supplier you’re looking for. Please take a look at our products and services menu for information about what we have to offer. If you haven’t found what you need here, please feel free to call us at our office. Our helpful and knowledgeable staff is ready to assist you in any way we can. We look forward to speaking with you soon.




Road Construction

Originally posted 2017-03-09 22:12:13. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Sky Renee live – The Troubadour – April 20th 2017 – Los Angeles, Music News


Perspective is not something one usually finds in young pop stars. But that’s one of the more refreshing and endearing aspects of the personality that is artist Skylar Renee. Indeed, certainly talent is there as well, in abundance as a matter of fact. Her debut single “Good As Gone” is a catchy pop nugget that tugs at the ear in the way many of the classic California created and inspired tunes of yesteryear, but with a sheen and bounce of the best of today’s finest pop. A little defiant, and definitely showing a self confidence, poise, and yes, perspective that is lacking in many of today’s star and fame-obsessed youth. Only nineteen years old, Skylar Renee was raised in the relaxing and laid-back environs of Malibu, California. Music has always been a companion, having studied voice with recording industry legend Ron Anderson since a young age. Through Anderson, Skylar hooked up with Eric Jackson and Storm and musical magic ensued. “Good As Gone” is the first of their collaboration to
https://skyrenee.com/sky-renee-live-troubadour-april-20th-2017/

If your brother or sister sins, go and point out their fault, just between the two of you. If they listen to you, you have won them over.




Originally posted 2017-04-11 21:33:26. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Kennewick Washington Construction call 1 888 260 7525


Copenhaver Construction provides Concrete sand and gravel earthmoving excavation septic systems rock crushing roadbuiding site preperation
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No one has ever seen God; but if we love one another, God lives in us and his love is made complete in us.




Originally posted 2017-03-29 21:27:36. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

May help cotton farmers battle blight — ScienceDaily – News


Researchers have figured out how a once-defeated bacterium has re-emerged to infect cotton in a battle that could sour much of the Texas and U.S. crop.

And it boils down to this: A smart bacteria with a sweet tooth.

“It’s a food fight between the bacterium and the cotton plant,” said Dr. Libo Shan, Texas A&M AgriLife Research plant pathologist in College Station. “The bacterium tricks the host to produce food for itself. But once the bacterium is in the plant, it saves its own resources and switches the plant’s transportation of sugar to itself. The host plant is deprived of sugar needed for energy, can’t get rid of the bacteria and the disease progresses. This bacterium is very smart.”

The discovery is in the May 24 edition of the journal Nature Communications.

The disease is bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas citri subspecies malvacearum, otherwise known as Xcm. Decades ago, it wiped out thousands of cotton acres annually, showing up first as brown spots on leaves, stems and even bolls then spreading until a plant — indeed entire fields of plants — dropped leaves and stopped growing. It’s equally devastating on rice and cassava, Shan said.

Scientists long ago identified Xcm as the culprit but didn’t know how or why the bacterium went on its warpath. Meanwhile, plant breeders tested types of cotton that were less susceptible and developed varieties that were more resistant to the disease. That worked from the late 20th Century until about six years ago when Xcm bacterial blight again showed up in force on the cotton crop in Texas and other states, wasting even varieties that previously could ward it off.

AgriLife Research scientists in Lubbock began searching the fields and plants for answers to help farmers cope, while another team in College Station took a deep look at the bacterium and cotton interaction at the cellular level and discovered its covert operations.

“This bacteria causes disease in cotton by using a secret weapon, a sort of needle-like structure, to inject the protein effectors into cotton cells,” Shan said. “One of these effectors mimics the host transcription factors, directly targeting and activating the host gene transcription of a plant sugar transporter. The plant then begins to pump energizing sugar from within the cell to the apoplast or pathway of the cell, thus feeding the bacteria.”

The discovery was made in part by Kevin Cox, a Texas A&M doctoral student from St. Louis, Missouri, who has been working with Shan for nearly four years and is lead author on the paper.

“My part of it was basically to identify what gene was being activated by a particular effector from the bacteria in order to cause disease,” he said. “When we found out what the target of that effector was, that’s when we got excited. That was pretty cool.”

Shan said the excitement reverberated among researchers for several reasons.

“First it will provide a mechanistic understanding of how the bacterium causes disease in cotton, and second it provides a potential strategy for control of this cotton disease and resistance against the bacteria,” she said. “Third, it may provide potential tools to do earlier diagnostic for the presence of this disease before symptoms show in the field.”

That’s important, Shan said, because once a farmer sees the disease in the field, it’s too late.

“It is very hard to control. Up to 40 percent of cotton yield can be affected,” she added. “So though this is a fundamental discovery of this mechanism how the bacterium causes disease, it provides a lot of potential for field application.”

Shan said isolates of the early strain and current strain of the Xcm bacterium — and the sequencing of their genomes — indicated there are polymorphisms genetically slightly different but acting the same in their attack on cotton.

“We compared the genetic differences in trying to pin down a reason for the disease’s rampant reemergence in recent years,” she said. “It is likely that rapid evolvement of new bacterial effectors contributed to the resurgence of this disease.”

The team will continue to explore bacterial blight in cotton, as well as study the implications of these finds on rice and cassava.

“We want to implement the tools for cotton diagnostics by working with engineers to develop a very sensitive probe, perhaps like a doctor would use for diagnosing diabetes in humans,” Shan said. “It would be useful to have a probe able to detect sugar content in the field for cotton, particularly in the early seedling stage.”

She said the team may also explore “gene editing technologies” to take out the portion of the gene that allows the bacteria to take the plant’s food, which would make the cotton more resistant.



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No one should seek their own good, but the good of others.

Sprague Washington

Welcome Sprague
Copenhaver Construction Inc. is a family owned and operated company. Established in 1992 we have continued to adapt and expand to meet the needs of our customers. From rock crushing to ready mix concrete, site prep to road construction, if you need some earth moved, hauled away or filled in, we are the one stop supplier you’re looking for. Please take a look at our products and services menu for information about what we have to offer. If you haven’t found what you need here, please feel free to call us at our office. Our helpful and knowledgeable staff is ready to assist you in any way we can. We look forward to speaking with you soon.




In God, whose word I praise— in God I trust and am not afraid. What can mere mortals do to me?


Road Construction

Originally posted 2017-03-13 20:03:40. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Steve Perry | Music Hot Hits – Classic Rock


Stephen Ray Perry (born January 22, 1949, in Hanford, California) is an American singer and songwriter best known as the lead vocalist of the rock band Journey.

Steve Perry is the only child of Raymond F. Perry (born Raymond Pereira) and Mary C. Quaresma and is of Portuguese heritage (Pico island, Azores). Steve grew up interested in music, as his father was a vocalist. He also counts Sam Cooke and Al Jolson among his early inspirations. The Perry family was close-knit until Ray left when Steve was 7. His mother later remarried, and Steve remained extremely close to her. On his twelfth birthday, Mary presented Steve with a gold eighth note necklace, which he still wears for good luck.

The family moved to Lemoore, California during Steve\’s teen years. While in Lemoore, the young long-haired singer continued to pursue his interest in music. He attended high school there, drumming in the marching band as well as in extracurricular bands. He attended Visalia, California\’s College o
http://www.musichothits.com/artist/Steve%20Perry

For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your ancestors, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect.




Originally posted 2017-04-12 19:20:30. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Heavy Construction News – Seeing electrons surfing the waves of light on graphene — ScienceDaily

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Researchers have studied how light can be used to “see” the quantum nature of an electronic material. They managed to do that by capturing light in a net of carbon atoms and slowing down light it down so that it moves almost as slow as the electrons in the graphene. Then something special happens: electrons and light start to move in concert, unveiling their quantum nature at such large scale that it could observed with a special type of microscope.

The experiments were performed with ultra-high quality graphene. To excite and image the ultra-slow ripples of light in the graphene (also called plasmons), the researchers used a special antenna for light that scans over the surface at a distance of a few nanometers. With this near field nanoscope they saw that the light ripples on the graphene moved more than 300 times slower than light, and dramatically different from what is expected from classical physics laws.

The work has been published in Science by ICFO researchers Dr. Mark Lundeberg, Dr. Achim Woessner, led by ICREA Prof. at ICFO Frank Koppens, in collaboration with Prof. Hillenbrand from Nanogune, Prof. Polini from IIT and Prof. Hone from Columbia University.

In reference to the accomplished experiments, Prof. Koppens comments: “Usually it is very difficult to probe the quantum world, and to do so it requires ultra-low temperatures; here we could just “see” it with light and even at room temperature.”

This technique paves now the way for exploring many new types quantum materials, including superconductors where electricity can flow without energy consumption, or topological materials that allow for quantum information processing with topological qubits. In addition, Prof. Hillenbrand states that “this could just be the beginning of a new era of near field nanoscopy.”

Prof. Polini adds that “This discovery may eventually lead to understanding in a truly microscopic fashion complex quantum phenomena that occur when matter is subject to ultra-low temperatures and very high magnetic fields, like the fractional quantum Hall effect”

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Materials provided by ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



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For the word of the Lord is right and true; he is faithful in all he does.

Heavy Construction News – These innovative materials could enable the development of a range of new cosmetic, skin care and biomedical products — ScienceDaily

Heavy Construction Photos


Scientists have long known that melanin — the pigments that give color to skin, hair and eyes — has numerous useful qualities, including providing protection from cancer-causing UV radiation and free radicals, but also electronic conductance, adhesiveness and the capacity to store energy.

To take advantage of these qualities, scientists across the City University of New York (CUNY) have developed a new approach for producing materials that not only mimic the properties of melanin, but also provide unprecedented control over expressing specific properties of the biopolymer, according to a paper published in the journal Science. The discovery could enable the development of cosmetic and biomedical products.

Unlike other biopolymers, such as DNA and proteins, where a direct link exists between the polymers’ ordered structures and their properties, melanin is inherently disordered, so directly relating structure to function is not possible. As a result, researchers have been unable to fully exploit melanin’s properties because the laboratory-based synthesis of melanin has been thwarted by the difficulty of engineering its disorderly molecular structure.

“We took advantage of simple versions of proteins — tripeptides, consisting of just three amino acids — to produce a range of molecular architectures with precisely controlled levels of order and disorder,” said lead researcher Rein V. Ulijn, director of the Nanoscience Initiative at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at the Graduate Center, CUNY. “We were amazed to see that, upon oxidation of these peptide structures, polymeric pigments with a range of colors — from light beige to deep brown- were formed.”

Subsequent, in-depth characterization of the approach demonstrated that further properties, such as UV absorbance and nanoscale morphology of the melanin-like materials, could also be systematically controlled by the amino acid sequence of the tripeptide.

“We found that the key to achieving polymers with controlled disorder is to start from systems that have variable order built in,” said Ayala Lampel, a postdoctoral ASRC researcher and the paper’s first author. “First, we figured out how the amino acid sequence of a set of tripeptides gives rise to differently ordered architectures. Next, we leveraged these ordered structures as templates for catalytic oxidation to form peptide pigments with a range of properties.”

The findings published in Science build on previous research conducted by Ulijn, who is also the Albert Einstein Professor of Chemistry at Hunter College and a member of the biochemistry and chemistry doctoral faculty at the Graduate Center. His lab will now turn its attention to further clarifying the chemical structures that form and expanding the resulting functionalities and properties of the various melanin-like materials they produce. The researchers are also pursuing commercialization of this new technology, which includes near-term possibilities in cosmetics and biomedicine.

Christopher J. Bettinger, a Carnegie Mellon University researcher who specializes in melanin applications in energy storage, collaborated with the ASRC team on the current work. Among the materials discovered, he found that two-dimensional, sheet-like polymers show significant charge-storage capacity. “Expanding the compositional parameters of these peptides could substantially increase the utility of the resulting pigments, and this research can also help us better understand the structural property and functions of natural melanins,” Bettinger said.

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Materials provided by CUNY Advanced Science Research Center. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



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Therefore, since we have these promises, dear friends, let us purify ourselves from everything that contaminates body and spirit, perfecting holiness out of reverence for God.

Road Construction – Call 1 888 260 7525 – Copenhaver Construction Inc


Welcome
Copenhaver Construction Inc. is a family owned and operated company. Established in 1992 we have continued to adapt and expand to meet the needs of our customers. From rock crushing to ready mix concrete, site prep to road construction, if you need some earth moved, hauled away or filled in, we are the one stop supplier you’re looking for. Please take a look at our products and services menu for information about what we have to offer. If you haven’t found what you need here, please feel free to call us at our office. Our helpful and knowledgeable staff is ready to assist you in any way we can. We look forward to speaking with you soon.

… Continue reading “Road Construction – Call 1 888 260 7525”
http://copenhaverconstructioninc.com/road-construction-call-1-888-260-7525/

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Originally posted 2017-05-08 18:32:48. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Chris Young – Music Weekly News


Chris Young

This is more than one artist with this name. 1. Christopher Alan (Chris) Young (born June 12, 1985 in Murfreesboro, Tennessee) is an American country music artist. In 2006, he was declared the winner of the television program Nashville Star, a singing competition which airs on the USA Networks. After winning, he was signed to RCA Records Nashville, releasing his self-titled debut album that year. On September 1st, 2009, Chris Young released his second album, “The Man I Want to Be”, with two songs, ‘The Man I Want to Be’, and ‘Gettin’ You Home’ both reaching #1 on the US Billboard Country Charts. He will be touring with Rascal Flatts and Luke Bryan in the 2011 year. __________ 2. Chris Young aka Chris Young The Rapper aka YoungOne aka C. Young (born Christopher Katrell Young on July 30th, 1989) is an American rapper-songwriter, poet, and producer, using mesh-ups of hip-hop, electronica and jazz. At the age of 15, Chris Young’s album Let Me Live was reviewed on rapreviews
http://musicweeklynews.com/chris-young/

Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus, because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit who gives life has set you free from the law of sin and death.




Originally posted 2017-04-11 18:32:25. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Jake Gardiner proves the risk is worth the reward – Sportsnet.ca


Leo Komarov has just finished making fun of the size of Jake Gardiner’s head, and now Gardiner is sitting in his stall after an off-day practice, and he’s thinking. The Toronto Maple Leafs defenceman has been trying to explain what goes through that head of his — which, truth be told, is quite big — when he gets creative on the ice, when he decides to make a move just inside the opposing team’s blue line to evade one player, then bounces the puck off the boards to himself to get past another, instead of going a safer route, like, say, getting the puck in deep.
http://www.sportsnet.ca/hockey/nhl/big-read-jake-gardiner-proves-risk-worth-reward/

It is written: ‘As surely as I live,’ says the Lord, ‘every knee will bow before me; every tongue will acknowledge God.’




Originally posted 2017-04-05 18:24:18. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Breaking News from around the world.


Copenhaver Construction Inc provides Concrete sand and gravel earthmoving excavation septic systems rock crushing Roadbuiding site preperation.

They also have a fantastic News Blog that keeps you Reading current stories and events from around the world. So stop on by and join us here.
http://copenhaverconstructioninc.com/blog/

We love because He first loved us.




Originally posted 2017-04-07 17:27:48. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Heavy Construction News – New Compact Wheel Loader from SDLG


SDLG debuted a new compact wheel loader – the SDLG L918F – at CONEXPO 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The company will occupy Gold Lot Booth G3890, an outdoor booth at the show, which runs from March 7-11. Several experts will be on hand to discuss the new machine and how it fits into the … Continue reading “Heavy Construction News – SDLG Debuts New Compact Wheel Loader” full review —>
http://copenhaverconstructioninc.com/2017/04/13/heavy-construction-news-sdlg-debuts-new-compact-wheel-loader/

Then he said to them all: Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross daily and follow me.




Originally posted 2017-04-13 17:06:31. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Heavy Construction News – Caterpillar Inc

Heavy Construction News

Type
Public
Traded as

NYSE: CAT
DJIA Component
S&P 100 Component
S&P 500 Component

Industry Heavy equipment
Engines
Financial services
Predecessor C. L. Best
Holt Manufacturing Company
Founded April 15, 1925; 91 years ago
California, U.S.
Headquarters Peoria, Illinois, U.S.
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Jim Umpleby (Chairman and CEO)
Revenue Decrease US$38.537 billion (2016)
Operating income
Decrease US$498 million (2016)
Net income
Decrease US$-67 million (2016)
Total assets Decrease US$74.704 billion (2016)
Total equity Decrease US$13.213 billion (2016)
Number of employees
95,400 (2016)
Parent Irving Place Capital
Website www.caterpillar.com

Caterpillar Inc. (NYSE: CAT) is an American corporation which designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets and sells machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network. Caterpillar is a leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines and diesel-electric locomotives. With more than US$89 billion in assets, Caterpillar was ranked number one in its industry and number 44 overall in the 2009 Fortune 500.[6] In 2016 Caterpillar was ranked #59 on the Fortune 500 list and #194 on the Global Fortune 500 list. Caterpillar stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Caterpillar Inc. traces its origins to the 1925 merger of the Holt Manufacturing Company and the C. L. Best Tractor Company, creating a new entity, the California-based Caterpillar Tractor Company. In 1986, the company re-organized itself as a Delaware corporation under the current name, Caterpillar Inc. Caterpillar’s headquarters are located in Peoria, Illinois; it announced in January 2017 that over the course of that year it would relocate its headquarters to Chicago.

The company also licenses and markets a line of clothing and workwear boots under its Cat / Caterpillar name. Caterpillar machinery is recognizable by its trademark “Caterpillar Yellow” livery and the “CAT” logo.

Benjamin Holt, one of the founding fathers of Holt Manufacturing Company.

Origins

The steam tractors of the 1890s and early 1900s were extremely heavy, sometimes weighing 1,000 pounds (450 kg) per horsepower, and often sank into the rich, soft earth of the San Joaquin Valley Delta farmland surrounding Stockton, California. Benjamin Holt attempted to fix the problem by increasing the size and width of the wheels up to 7.5 feet (2.3 m) tall and 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, producing a tractor 46 feet (14 m) wide. But this also made the tractors increasingly complex, expensive and difficult to maintain.

Two Holt 45 gas crawler tractors team up to pull a long wagon train in the Mojave Desert during construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1909.

Another solution considered was to lay a temporary plank road ahead of the steam tractor, but this was time-consuming, expensive, and interfered with earthmoving. Holt thought of wrapping the planks around the wheels. He replaced the wheels on a 40 horsepower (30 kW) Holt steamer, No. 77, with a set of wooden tracks bolted to chains. On Thanksgiving Day, November 24, 1904, he successfully tested the updated machine plowing the soggy delta land of Roberts Island.

Company photographer Charles Clements was reported to have observed that the tractor crawled like a caterpillar, and Holt seized on the metaphor. “Caterpillar it is. That’s the name for it!” Some sources, though, attribute this name to British soldiers in July 1907. Two years later Holt sold his first steam-powered tractor crawlers for US$5,500, about US$128,000 today. Each side featured a track frame measured 30 inches (760 mm) high by 42 inches (1,100 mm) wide and were 9 feet (2.7 m) long. The tracks were 3 inches (76 mm) by 4 inches (100 mm) redwood slats.

Holt received the first patent for a practical continuous track for use with a tractor on December 7, 1907 for his improved “Traction Engine” (“improvement in vehicles, and especially of the traction engine class; and included endless traveling platform supports upon which the engine iscarried”).

Move to Peoria

A postcard showing the Caterpillar Tractor Co. plant in Peoria, period 1930–1945.

On February 2, 1910, Holt opened up a plant in East Peoria, Illinois, led by his nephew Pliny Holt. There Pliny met farm implement dealer Murray Baker who knew of an empty factory that had been recently built to manufacture farm implements and steam traction engines. Baker, who later became the first executive vice president of what became Caterpillar Tractor Company, wrote to Holt headquarters in Stockton and described the plant of the bankrupt Colean Manufacturing Co. of East Peoria, Illinois. On October 25, 1909, Pliny Holt purchased the factory, and immediately began operations with 12 employees. Holt incorporated it as the Holt Caterpillar Company, although he did not trademark the name Caterpillar until August 2, 1910.

The addition of a plant in the Midwest, despite the hefty capital needed to retool the plant, proved so profitable that only two years later the company employed 625 people and was exporting tractors to Argentina, Canada, and Mexico.[19] Tractors were built in both Stockton and East Peoria.[20][21]

On January 31, 2017, after more than 90 years of being headquartered in Peoria, Illinois, the company announced plans to move their headquarters from Peoria to Chicago, Illinois by the end of 2017. The upper echelon of executives, including newly installed CEO Jim Umpleby, will begin relocating later this year, with up to 100 employees total moving by year’s end. About 300 employees will work in the new office at an as-yet undecided location once the transition is complete. The company indefinitely suspended planning for the new Peoria headquarters in the fall of 2015 after announcing a restructuring effort that called for up to 10,000 jobs to be cut and about 20 facilities around the world to be closed or consolidated. The changes contributed to $2.3 billion in savings in 2016, but sales and revenue for last year still were more than 40 percent below peak levels of 2012. Umpleby said that decline is a fundamental reason the company’s Board of Directors opted to move global headquarters to an area where the global marketplace is in easier reach.

Use in World War I

Holt’s track-type tractors played a support role in World War I. Even before the U.S. formally entered WWI, Holt had shipped 1,200 tractors to England, France and Russia for agricultural purposes. These governments, however, sent the tractors directly to the battlefront where the military put them to work hauling artillery and supplies. When World War I broke out, the British War Office ordered a Holt tractor and put it through trials at Aldershot. The War Office was suitably impressed and chose it as a gun-tractor.Over the next four years, the Holt tractor became a major artillery tractor, mainly used to haul medium guns like the 6-inch howitzer, the 60-pounder, and later the 9.2-inch howitzer.

Holt tractors were also the inspiration for the development of the British tank, which profoundly altered ground warfare tactics. Major Ernest Swinton, sent to France as an army war correspondent, very soon saw the potential of a track-laying tractor.:116 Although the British later chose an English firm to build its first tanks, the Holt tractor became “one of the most important military vehicles of all time.”

A Caterpillar D2, introduced in 1938, at the Serpentine Vintage Tractor Museum, Serpentine, Western Australia.

Post-war challenges

Holt tractors had become well known during World War I. Military contracts formed the major part of the company’s production. When the war ended, Holt’s planned expansion to meet the military’s needs was abruptly terminated. The heavy-duty tractors needed by the military were unsuitable for farmers. The company’s situation worsened when artillery tractors were returned from Europe, depressing prices for new equipment and Holt’s unsold inventory of military tractors. The company struggled with the transition from wartime boom to peacetime bust. To keep the company afloat, they borrowed heavily.

C. L. Best Gas Tractor Company, formed by Clarence Leo Best in 1910 and Holt’s primary competitor, had during the war received government support enabling it to supply farmers with the smaller agricultural tractors they needed. As a result, Best had gained a considerable market advantage over Holt by war’s end. Best also assumed considerable debt to allow it to continue expansion, especially production of its new Best Model 60 “Tracklayer”.

Both companies were adversely impacted by the transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy, which contributed to a nationwide depression, further inhibiting sales. On December 5, 1920, 71-year-old Benjamin Holt died after a month-long illness.

Caterpillar company formed (1925)

A 60-horsepower Caterpillar Sixty being used for road work in the Cibola National Forest, New Mexico, United States in 1931

The banks who held the company’s large debt forced the Holt board of directors to accept their candidate, Thomas A. Baxter, to succeed Benjamin Holt. Baxter initially cut the large tractors from the company’s product line and introduced smaller models focused on the agricultural market. When the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 funded a US$1 billion federal highway building program, Baxter began re-focusing the company towards building road construction equipment.[:66 Both companies also faced fierce competition from the Fordson company.

Between 1907 and 1918, Best and Holt had spent about US$1.5 million in legal fees fighting each other in a number of contractual, trademark and patent infringement lawsuits. Harry H. Fair of the bond brokerage house of Pierce, Fair & Company of San Francisco had helped to finance C. L. Best’s debt and Holt shareholders approached him about their company’s financial difficulty. Fair recommended that the two companies should merge. In April and May 1925, the financially stronger C. L. Best merged with the market leader Holt Caterpillar to form the Caterpillar Tractor Co.

The new company was headquartered in San Leandro until 1930, when under the terms of the merger it was moved to Peoria. Baxter had been removed as CEO earlier in 1925, and Clarence Leo Best assumed the title of CEO, and remained in that role until October 1951.

The Caterpillar company consolidated its product lines, offering only five track-type tractors: the 2 Ton, 5 Ton, and 10 Ton from the Holt Manufacturing Company’s old product line and the Caterpillar 30 and Caterpillar 60 from the C. L. Best Tractor Co.’s former product line. The 10 Ton and 5 Ton models were discontinued in 1926. In 1928, the 2 Ton was discontinued. Sales the first year were US$13 million. By 1929, sales climbed to US$52.8 million, and Caterpillar continued to grow throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Caterpillar adopted the diesel engine to replace gasoline engines. During World War II, Caterpillar products found fame with the Seabees, Construction Battalions of the United States Navy, who built airfields and other facilities in the Pacific Theater of Operations. Caterpillar ranked 44th among United States corporations in the value of wartime military production contracts. During the post-war construction boom, the company grew at a rapid pace and launched its first venture outside the U.S. in 1950, marking the beginning of Caterpillar’s development into a multinational corporation.

Expansion in developing markets

CAT 323DL

Caterpillar built its first Russian facility in the town of Tosno, located near St. Petersburg, Russia. It was completed in 16 months and occupied in November 1999. It had the first electrical substation built in the Leningrad Oblast since the Communist government was dissolved on December 26, 1991. The facility was built under harsh winter conditions, where the temperature was below −13 °F (−25 °C). The facility construction was managed by the Lemminkäinen Group located in Helsinki, Finland.[citation needed]

The $125M Caterpillar Suzhou, People’s Republic of China facility, manufactures medium wheel loaders and motorgraders, primarily for the Asian market. The first machine was scheduled for production in March 2009. URS Ausino, in San Francisco, California, manages facility construction.[citation needed]

Caterpillar has manufactured in Brazil since 1960. In 2010 the company announced plans to further expand production of backhoe and small wheel loaders with a new factory.

Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.

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Originally posted 2017-04-17 16:58:48. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Heavy Construction News – Nanoparticles and magnets offer new, efficient method of removing oil from water — ScienceDaily

Heavy Construction Photos


When oil mixes with or enters into water, conventional methods of cleaning the water and removing the oil can be challenging, expensive and environmentally risky. But researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin believe they may have developed a better method.

In a study published this spring in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research, the researchers used magnetic nanoparticles to separate oil from water through a simple process that relies on electrostatic force and a magnet. The engineers believe their new technique could improve water treatment for oil and gas production, more efficiently clean up oil spills and potentially remove lead from drinking water.

Today, nanoparticles, which are tiny particles that can be coated with different chemicals such as polymers, are used in a wide variety of areas and industries including medicine, energy and electronics. The versatility of nanoparticles inspired the UT Austin team to explore how the particles could be applied to oil production to lessen its environmental footprint and increase efficiency in both onshore and offshore drilling. They believe their technique could also be used to treat the millions of gallons of fresh water used in hydraulic fracturing and to help clean drinking water.

Modern oil production methods separate 95 percent of the oil from produced water but leave behind small oil droplets that are difficult to extract, which makes water treatment and disposal more challenging and environmentally risky.

“This new technique is really aimed at removing that little bit of oil in that water that needs to be removed before you can consider it treated,” said Saebom Ko, a research associate in the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering and lead author on the study. “The advantage of employing magnetic nanoparticles is that the small oil droplets that attach to the nanoparticles are much more quickly separated from water than traditional physical separation processes because magnetic force can be orders of magnitude larger than gravitation.”

Ko worked with a team including petroleum and geosystems engineering professor Hugh Daigle, biomedical engineering professor Thomas Milner and researcher Chun Huh to design surface coatings for magnetic nanoparticles that could be used for the removal of oil. They employed a technique, called high gradient magnetic separation, that has been used in mining to remove metals and in the food industry to remove toxic particles.

The team’s main advancement is designing surface coatings for nanoparticles that are able to adhere to oil droplets using electrostatic force. The team coated the magnetic nanoparticles with polymers whose surface charge is positive. The positively charged magnetic nanoparticles then latch on to the negatively charged oil droplets through electrostatic attractive force, similar to how a dust-trapping cloth picks up dust. The process — which takes seconds in laboratory tests — could also happen in reverse. If the target substances have positive surface charges, the magnetic nanoparticles could be coated with negatively charged polymers to attract the target.

“It’s a simple idea,” Daigle said. “We are leveraging the magnetic properties of these nanoparticles to get them to stick to the oil droplets and essentially magnetize the oil droplets so they can be pulled out with a magnet.”

The ease of the technique and the flexibility of magnetic nanoparticles have motivated the researchers to consider different applications.

“The applications can extend far beyond the oil field because, with an appropriate surface coating design, you can take your magnetic core and coat it with whatever chemical you choose on the outside to stick to the target and pull it out with a magnet,” Daigle said.

The researchers have envisioned designing a method for using these nanoparticles to clean up oil spills in the ocean. They are also exploring how magnetic nanoparticles can be used to remove lead and other contaminants from drinking water, with plans to test their ideas this summer.

For oil and gas production, the team plans to develop a treatment system that would have the capacity to rapidly handle a high volume of oil and water, which would be crucial for onshore and offshore oil drilling sites.

“We are currently developing a chemical-free regeneration process to reuse nanoparticles. Other regeneration methods use chemicals to extract the oil, resulting in production of other hazardous waste,” Ko said. “We believe that by recycling and reusing nanoparticles, it could not only reduce operational costs, but it could be an environmentally friendly process that reduces hazardous waste.”

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Materials provided by University of Texas at Austin. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



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